Friday, July 6, 2007



A Thesis Presented to
The Faculty of the Graduate School (MAEP)
Xavier University (Ateneo de Cagayan)
Cagayan de Oro City

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
For the Degree

1. Summary
This is a descriptive study using qualitative research method to determine the process of formulation and implementation of policies on environmental, peace and development in Malabang, Lanao del Sur. Aspects studied were the personal profile of the SB members of Malabang, Lanao del Sur, the policies on environmental development and peace, the formulation process involved in the approved policies and the problems encountered in the implementation of these policies.
2. Methodology
Interview guide was used to gather data from the key informants. These informants were members of the Sangguniang Bayan of Malabang. In addition, content analysis of policies approved by the SB of Malabang, Lanao del Sur was done. The coverage of the policies being analyzed was from 1994 to 1998 and limited to policies related to environmental development and peace. Actual observation was also made.

3. Conclusions
a. From the data on the personal profile of the respondents, a typical member of the Sangguniang Bayan of Malabang was a male belonged to the age brackets of 50 years and below, married, a college graduate, and a Muslim. He was a member of several civic organizations and in some of these organizations, he was an officer.
b. There were only a few policies on environmental development and peace approved by the SB of Malabang for the last five (5) years. The bulk of the policies on environmental development and peace was on health and sanitation.
c. The formulation process of the policies approved and promulgated by the Malabang SB followed the standard operating procedure and consultations were conducted for policies needing consultations.
d. The implementation of the policies approved by the Malabang SB suffered form several problems. Number 1 problem that hampered form several problems. Number 1 problem that hampered in the proper implementation of these policies was the problem of fund disbursement. Another was the lack of an effective information drive.
4. Recommendations
a. It is recommended that the municipal government of Malabang should exert efforts in solving some problems related to the implementation of its policies. This can be done by the proper disbursement of funds and improving the communication facilities in the place so that information drive could be effected with efficiency and dispatch to the most number of constituents.
b. It is also recommended that officials involved in the implementation of the policies should be told to uphold the law above personal matters so that the “tayo-tayo” system and the “padrino system” will be eliminated in the local enforcement program of the municipality.
c. A more in-depth study on this topic may be conducted using the entire Lanao del Sur province as the setting of the study.

Background of the Study
The local legislative body of the municipal government in the Philippines is called Sangguniang bayan or SB. This body is tasked to legislate policies, including ordinances and resolutions for peace and order and sustainable development. Each ordinance and resolution enacted by the SB shall be presented to the Municipal Mayor who is the Chief Executive of the municipal government. If he approves the same, he shall affix his initials on each and every page thereof; otherwise, he shall veto it and return the same with his objections. The Sangguniang Bayan may override the veto of the Mayor by two-thirds (2/3) vote of all its members, thereby making the ordinance or resolution effective for all intents and purposes (1991 Local Government Code).

Accordingly, some municipalities of the province of Lanao del Sur do not have responsive legislated policies to ensure peace and sustainable development. In a review of governmental performance of Lanao del Sur, it was indicated that legislative agenda of more than one half (57.34%) of the municipalities do not include peace and development as their priority legislative measures. While others who indicated that peace and development as their priority legislative agenda, actual legislative measure passed suggested that this was not so (Sarip, 1995). If there are measures for economic development and for peace and order passed by the Sanguniang Bayan, these remained unimplemented or partially implemented for some fund disbursement problems. This may be one of the reasons why Lanao del Sur remains as one of the poorest provinces in the country.

This may be true in Malabang being one of the 38 municipalities of the province of Lanao del Sur. Its Sangguniang Bayan is expected to pass and approve major policies with high level of implementation or adaptation in order to keep public knowledge and awareness that the municipal government is doing its inherent duties and responsibilities. But, socio-economic conditions thereat affect the SB in the formulation and legislation of policies. Panda (1989) revealed that :
Malabang has an average annual income of P1,009,126.43 and classified as 5th class Municipality based on Executive Order No.249 signed on the 25th day of July 1987 in Manila by Joker P. Arroyo, the former Executive Secretary of the President of the Philippines, Corazon C. Aquino. It provides that municipalities are divided into six (6) main classes according to their average annual income.

This classification implies the urgent need for economic development through responsive local policies to spearhead development. The place should progress economically if it is to catch up with its neighboring municipalities in Maguindanao and Cotabato provinces. However, whatever development initiatives that will come to Malabang should be in harmony with its on-going efforts of environmental preservation. Its main industry is a cassava flour mill and has been a subject of various local ordinances to prevent environmental pollution of its rivers, beaches and springs. Its main spring is located in the heart of the poblacion and is now developed into the main water supply system for the municipality. Destruction of this spring will not only poise a health hazard to the populace but also destroy an important tourist and historical spot.

Since the researcher has been a long time resident of Malabang, he is familiar with the political activities and local governance of the municipality. It has been observed that in spite of the presence of some guides and ordinances, people merely act whatever they want to do no matter who is affected by their behavior. This negative political dynamics is not supportive of the efforts of the municipal government of Malabang to ring the much needed development and in maintaining a sustainable environment. It is in this light that this study was undertaken.

Research Paradigm
The theories that have direct bearing on the assessment/evaluation of policies and local ordinances on environmental development are policy process, political participation and local governance.

In the legislation of local policies, the members of the local legislative body are directly involved. Their personal background and experience may influence the formulation and legislation of such policies. Tanggol (1993) revealed that policy process often starts form a problematic situation. Before any policy action is taken, the existing situation is considered and thoroughly diagnosed for any possible policy problem. Once a policy problem is identified, a local legislator may file appropriate bill or resolution to solve it.

Macaayong (1994) explained that the degree of success of local government units in realizing their objectives for stability and development is not only determined by leadership capability of the local executive branch, but also by competence in legislation and in the administration of the legislators, the quality of legislative measures enacted upon, and the appropriateness of the legislative measures to the needs and demands of the locality would surely count.

Section 447 of the Local Government Code of 1991, provides the powers, duties and functions of the Sangguniang Bayan or the legislative body of the municipality. In summary, this section of the Code empowers the Sanguniang Bayan to enact ordinances, approve resolutions and appropriate funds for the general welfare of the municipality and its inhabitant pursuant to Section 16 of the Code.

The Muslim Mindanao Autonomy act No. 25, otherwise known as the Local Government Code of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindano, provides that the Sangguniang Bayan as the legislative body of the municipality, shall enact ordinances, approve resolutions and appropriate funds for the general welfare of the municipality and its inhabitants and in the proper exercise of the corporate powers of the municipality as provided for under Section 19 of the Code. It shall also approve ordinances and pass resolutions necessary for an efficient and effective municipal government, and to protect the environment, impose appropriate penalties for acts which endanger the environment, such as dynamite fishing and other forms of destructive fishing, illegal logging and smuggling of logs, smuggling of natural resources products and of endangered species of flora and fauna, slash and burning farming, and such other activities which result in pollution, accelation of euthrophication of rivers and lakes, or of ecological imbalance (Rule XXXII, Art. 463 (1) (vi), Rules and Regulations Implementing the Local Government Code of the ARMM, 1995).

The Code (MMAA25) has included among the powers, duties and functions of the Sangguniang Bayan the maintenance of peace and order and the promotion of the sustainable development in the municipality. On peace and order, the SB is mandated to enact measure to prevent and suppress lawlessness, disorder, riot, violence, rebellion or sedition and imposing penalties for the violation of said ordinances. In addition, the Code also provides for enacting and adopting measures to protect the inhabitants of the municipality form the harmful effects of man-made or natural disasters and calamity and to provide relief services and assistance for victims during and in the aftermath of said disasters or calamities and their return to productive livelihood following said events (Art.463, (1), (ii) & (iv) Rules and Regulations Implementing the Local Government Code of the ARMM).

On the development, the Code mandates the SB to generate and maximize the use of resources and revenues for the development plans, program objectives and priorities of the municipality with particular attention to agro-industrial development and countryside growth and progress (Art.463, (2) Rules and Regulations Implementing the Local Government Code of the ARMM).

The Code also mandates the participation of people’s organizations, non-government organizations, and the private sector in the local governance and implementation of projects in the area (Rule XI, Arts.51-53, Rules and Regulations Implementing the Local Government Code of the ARMM, 1995).

Along this line, participation could be done in different manners and has been used to refer to varying phenomena. The term, however, is defined here, specifically in the context of formulation of policies. This is called political participation which Greenstein and Polsby (1975:24-25) defined as the degree in which the people influence government decision-making process. This kind of participation is also relevant in the formulation of local policies by a local legislative assembly. Participation, therefore, varies form one society to another according to existing social and political realities. It also varies in accordance with the kind of leaders directing the government and their leadership styles (Macaayong, 1994).

Local leaders are leaders at the local level when we talk about local and national government relationship. They are addressed as local leaders regardless of their socio-economic background. In a Muslim area, the leaders are Muslims, professing Islam as a religion and a way of life. Panda (1993) said that:
Muslim leader is one who is true to his duty, cares for his fellowmen; does not steal from the treasury, carries his duty to implement viable projects of the people against inside and outside evil forces; does not promise things he believes he cannot deliver; never uses guns and goons; condemns illegal acts in the elections; does not protest and contest the results of a clean and upright election; has a clear vision for the society’s future; and does not confine himself in the office, but goes out to the masses to conduct proper consultation with them for a meaningful and sustainable development.

This means that a leader is viewed as a mirror for what the people should do. Local policy here refers to a policy regulating certain program or project implementation at the local level. Generally, public policies are those policies developed by governmental bodies and officials. The special characteristics of public policies steam from the fact that they are formulated by what David Easton called the “authorities” in a political system namely: elders, government chiefs, executives, legislators, judges, administrators, councilors, and the like (Anderson, 1975).

The effect of the formulated policy after it has been implemented can be seen in all spheres of local affairs, (i.e.) political reforms, socio-educational, and economic development as discussed herein below:

Political reforms – refers to honest, orderly, peaceful and massive political participation in the political processes, including the initiation of positive electoral process, electoral changes directed toward people’s empowerment.

Socio-educational development deals on the increased capacity of the constituents to avail themselves of educational opportunities as evidenced by the number of educational institutions, organizations and individuals who are mainly tasked to work leading towards socio-educational upliftment; and

Economic development refers to the improvement of the quality of life as evidenced by the increasing number of organizations, business, residential houses and projects leading towards the economic upliftment of the people (Panda, 1993).

The effects, the outcomes, and consequences of changes are through peopl’s participation. In Islam, change and development can take place out of people’s involvement.
Allah says in the Glorious Qur’an:

The effects never change the Grace. He hath bestowed on a people until they change what in their (own) souls; and verily God is He who heareth and knoweth (all things) (8:53).
Allah further says:
Of God verily never will God change the condition of a people until they change it themselves (with their own souls) (13:11).

These verses encourage Muslims to exert their efforts in managing positive changes and sustainable development in the society. To achieve this, concerned people must cooperate with their leaders (Panda, 1993).

In the writing of Anderson (1975), policy formulation process varies among policy making bodies of organizations, business enterprises and even governments. The process starts with the identification of a policy problem through inputs from concerned persons, customers or in the case of a government unit, the taxpayers. This is usually followed by a pre-formulation consultation with constituents to take a “second tool” at the reported problem. This consultation may provide detailed explanation of the problem, its pros and cons noted and appropriate course of action chosen from alternatives. Based from this consultation, a policy is formulated for the identified policy problem. This is called as policy output or policy outcome. This is usually followed by an information drive regarding the newly formulated policy for the information of the general public especially those directly or indirectly affected by the new policy. Implementation follows (Anderson, 1975).

Nolledo (1991) theorized that the grant of autonomy to local government units by RA 7160 is a beginning of a political federalization. Political federalization allows wider and more comprehensive local autonomy such that the local government units will have a stronger legislative function and a stronger executive branch to generate funds for its administrative machinery and development. The third branch of government – the judiciary remains at the control of the national government.

The theories and principles discussed above served as the bases in formulating the conceptual framework of the study. AS shown in Figure d1, the respondent’s personal profile such as age, sex, civil status, educational attainment, religious affiliation, position in the SB and membership in organization are appropriate descriptive characteristics of the SB members of Malabang.

The second factor considered in this study was the process of policy formulation and problems identified in the implementation of these policies. This includes the identification of the nature of the approved ordinances and resolutions passed by the SB of Malabang from CY 1994 to CY 1998, and how these policies were formulated. The nature of the policies was based on the following categories: peace and environment; economic enterprises; social, cultural, historical; and honors, awards, citations, etc.

The third factor considered in this study was the implications of the findings ot peace and development. It is expected that the problems encountered in the policy formulation and implementation processes adopted by the SB of Malabang would shed light on some issues relevant to peace and development in Malabang in particular and in Muslim Mindanao in general.

The components of the study is presented in the schematic presentation of the conceptual model of the study in Figure 1.
Personal Profile:
Age, sex, civil status, educational attainment, reigious affiliation, position in SB, & membership in organizations.
Process of policy formulation and problems on the implementation process.
Implications to Peace and Development
Figure 1. Schematic Presentation of the Conceptual Model of the Study

Statement of the Problem
This study attempted to determine the process of formulation and implementation of policies on environmental, peace and development in Malabang, Lanao del Sur. Specifically, the study sought answers to the following questions:
1. What is the personal profile of the respondents in terms of age, sex, civil status, religious affiliation, educational attainment, position in SB, and membership in organization.
2. What are the municipal policies related to environmental development, and peace and development approved by the Municipal Council of Malabang, Lanao del Sur as of CY 1994 TO CY 1998?
3. What is the formulation process involved in the approved policies related to environmental development and peace?
4. What are the problems encountered in the implementation of these policies?
5. What implications can be drawn form the findings of the study?

Objectives of the Study
General Objective

To determine the process of formulation and the problems on the implementation of the policies on environmental, peace and development in Malabang, Lanao del Sur.

Specific Objectives
1. To find out the personal profile of the respondents in terms of age, sex, civil status, religious affiliation, educational attainment, position in SB, and membership in organization.
2. To determine the municipal policies related to environment and peace and development approved by the Municipal Council of Malabang, Lanao del Sur CY 1994 to CY 1998.
3. To find out the formulation process involved in the approved policies related to environment, peace and development.
4. To know the problems encountered in the implementation of these policies.
5. To draw implication out of the findings of the study.
6. To generate hypotheses based on the findings of the study.

Significance of the Study
This study is valuable to local government officials and implementers of RA 7160, otherwise known as “Act Providing for a Local Government Code of 1991.” This comprehensive piece of legislation “may well be referred to as the Emancipation Law of Local Governments in the Philippines and a prelude to federalization of our country” (Nolledo 1991). This new code had substantially increased the taxing powers of the local governments and has devolved certain government functions previously enjoyed by the National Government. Under this Code, local governments have some authority in certain areas of health, social welfare, agriculture, and public works (Nolledo). Further, RA 7160 attempts to move government close to the people. Non-Government Organization (NGOs) or Peoples’ Organizations (POs) are assured of seats in the local councils and a system of recall instituted to make local officials more attuned to the sentiments of their respective constituents. Local initiative is also provided where the people may initiate and cause the adoption of certain policies despite the existence of local councils (ibid). Hence, the findings of the study is important to local legislators, like the Sangguniang Bayan which is given vital responsibilities under the said law. They will seriously study the Code to determine whether they are fair in the changing conditions and existing local realities. Such examination is useful in the legislation of laws governing local affairs. Moreover, this study is a useful reference material to improve the local government’s activities.

Finally, the findings of the study can provide inputs to program and policy implementers at the local level. The results, therefore, will provide baseline information for researchers, students and faculty working on peace and development in undertaking similar studies.

Scope and Limitation of Study
This research study is confined mainly on the analysis of policies formulated by the local government of Malabang, Lanao del Sur form 1994 to 1998. The analysis was primarily applied on municipal ordinances and municipal resolutions passed by the Municipal Council of Malabang concerning environmental development. It also dealt on how these policies were formulated and the problems encountered during their implementation stage.

Malabang had been chosen as the setting of the study considering the fact that this area is where the three (3) systems, i.e., legal system, indigenous system and the Islamic system are operating side by side affecting the roles of local leaders. Besides, the researcher has grown up and stayed in the place for more than thirty years. Hence, alienation causing some delays in data gathering was not be a much problem because the researcher has established rapport with his prospective respondents who are the members of the Sannguniang Bayan of Malabang.

Lastly, this study is limited to interview of key informants using an Interview Guide with Key Informants. This was resorted considering the adherent difficulties in convening all possible respondents. However, the data gathered from the Interview Guide were properly taken cared of to preserve their authenticity.

Definition of Terms
The following terms are defined conceptually and operationally for better understanding:
Age. This is defined as the length of time that a person lived or existed. Klausmeir and Ripple (1971:217) said that individuals acquire and change their attitudes from infancy to adult life. As used in this study, it refers to the age of the key informants who were the municipal councilors or SB members of the Municipality of Malabang from 1994 to 1999.

Civil status. This refer to the classification of the respondent whether they are married, single or separate.
Economic development. This refer to the improvement of the quality of life as evidenced by the increasing number of organizations, businesses, residential houses, and projects leading towards the economics upliftment of the people (Panda,1993). As used in this study, it refers to the general improvement of the economic status of Malabang residents that can be a result of an effective economic policies adopted by the municipal government of Malabang.

Educational attainment. This refers to the level of formal education obtained by a person (Good, 1979). In this study, it refers to highest education attainment of the respondents which was classified as follows: 1) College level, 2) Bachelor’s degree holder, 3) Master, 4) Doctorate degree holder, and 5) Post –doctoral level.

Environmental development. This refers to the development program sustaining and preserving the ecosystem (Mangahas, 1976). As used in this study, it refer to policies formulated by the Municipality of Malabang that had direct bearing on the preservation and development of the environment.

Local leaders. This refers to the Municipal Mayor, Vice Mayor and Councilors (Sangguniang Bayan members). They are responsible in the formulation of local ordinances and resolutions.

Local government. This refers to the local government unit found in the city, province, and the municipality (Macaayong, 1994). As used in this study, it refers to the municipal government of Malabang, Lanao del Sur .

Local policy. This is referred to as regulating certain program or project’s implementation at the local level (Anderson, 1975). For purposes of the municipal ordinance(s) and resolution(s) formulated by the Sangguniang Bayan of the Municipality of Malabang, Lanao del Sur.

Membership in organization. This refer to a person’s involvement and participation in civic, political, and social organization upon which he pays a membership fee (Good,1979). In this study, it refers to the local, regional, national and international organizations where the respondent is a member.

Participation. In contemporary political science, the concept “political participation” has been used to the active presence in the formulation of policies and in decision-making (Fianza, 1982). For purpose of this study, it refers to the participation of local leaders in the formulation of policies in the Municipality of Malabang, Lanao del Sur.
Position. This is defined as the employment rank occupied by a person (CSC circular, 1992). As used in the study, it refers to the current elected position of the respondents in the respondents in the Municipality of Malabang, Lanao del Sur.

Profile. This refers to the demographic characteristics of a person (Good, 1979). In this study, it refers to the personal characteristics of the respondents in terms of their age, sex, civil status, educational attainment, position in the SB and membership in organizations.

Religious affiliation. This refers to a person’s religious denomination such as Islam, Christianity, etc.
Sex. This is defined as the characteristics and functions by which a person, animal, or plant is classified as male or female (Good, 1979). As used in this study, it refers to the sex of the SB members of the Municipality of Malabang, Lanao del Sur.

Chapter II

The researcher endeavored to survey existing related literature and studies and came upon a few studies related to the present study. It covers material regarding the local leader’s participation in the formulation of policies and its effects on the socio-economic and political condition of the people. It also provides a situationer on the events that motivated local leaders to perform their role in policy formulation. Hence, these are used as background of analysis and discussion in this study. These are divided into related literature and related studies.

Related Literature
Awareness and perception concept are closely related. As an individual becomes fully aware of the existence of a particular object or issue, he starts to develop a certain kind of perception towards it. It naturally follows that a person must first be aware of an object or an issue before he could develop a certain kind of perception of it. On the other hand, the development of awareness of an object or issue would eventually influence his future perception toward the same subject.

Lindersmith and Strauss (1968) assert that perception refers to the ways in which organism respond to stimuli depending on how it is felt by their sense organs. They further stressed that perception is selective, that motivation and needs sensitize one to specific stimuli or sometimes lead to distorted perception, that stimuli are misinterpreted and that perception of the some situation may vary from individual to individual.

In contemporary political science literature, the concept “political participation” has been used to refer to varying phenomena. The term, however, shall be spelled out, specially, as an active presence in the formulation of policy- decisions. Although such participation process can take place at different levels i.e., in the economics level, as participation in the decision-making process of the production units and in their ownership, as well as participation in the social and cultural fields (Fianza, 19820)

It was opined that citizen’s participation in the political affairs of the government depend on some factors such as level of education, level of political awareness and the perceiver benefits one will get out of such participation. The higher the educational attainment and the level of political awareness a person has, the higher will be his potential participation (Fianza, 1982)

Fianza (1982) further said that at the municipal level, the membership of the local legislative bodies (Sangguniang Bayan) was doubled in number to include one representative each from the capital, agricultural labor, industrial labor and professional sectors, the president of the Kabataang Barangay (Citizen Youth Council or Youth Assembly) and the president of the Association of Barangay Captains (ABC) and as many barangay representatives as necessary to double the number of existing councils (Fianza, 1982).

Tapales (as cited in Fianza, 1982) revealed further that a study which had 82 local officials as respondents came up with the following results:

Only 40% of the interviewees considered the Sangguniang Bayan effective as means of increasing participation in the decision-making process through representation in local legislative bodies. More than half (52%) of the respondents did not consider it effective, while 8% of the respondents did not wish to comment. Many of those who considered the SB effective mentioned that increased participation in policy-making is achieved through sectoral representation. Those who gave negative answers did not see any difference-between the old and the new councils. Others attributed effectiveness of the SB in its unwieldiness and, because of its large membership, is expensive to maintain. Still others were skeptical about the representatives of the sectoral choices and the rest withheld judgment on the SB, it being then only a new experiment.

In-depth studies, coordinated by the university of the Philippine-College of Public Administration (utilizing them as the field research exercise for the 15th LADP, were also conducted to look further into the Sangguniang Bayan’s effectiveness. Studies were conducted in two cities (one in Southern Luzon and one in the Visayas), one municipality in Luzon and a province in Northern Mindanao, where SB members were interviewed and quick questionnaires were administered to large groups of respondents. Complementing these surveys were studies conducted in particular SB’s.

The studies on the Sangguniang Bayans’ effectiveness using the following as indicators:
1. Representatives of the membership participation in the policy-making process in terms of attendance in meetings, participation in committees and council discussions, and sponsorship of ordinances and resolutions; and
2. Responsiveness of the legislation passed by the SB in term whether it answers the people’s needs. The results revealed the following (Tapales, 1976):

On participation, a study on Northern Mindanao municipality found no significant differences in the number of resolutions sponsored by old or new members, though old members tended to participate more during SB sessions, whether in discussions or sponsorship or resolutions. Attendance in SB meetings was found to be high, though that of the provincial SB was comparatively low (73%) compared to over 95% for the cities and municipalities) which may be attributed to its rather large membership.
Almond and Verba (1965) conducted a study in five countries (Italy, Germany, Great Britain, Mexico, and the United States) concerning the political attitudes of the citizens. The findings showed, among others, that “the better educated the individual, the greater impact he sees his government having work on him”. That educational level affects an individual’s interest towards the political system holds true not only among adults but it also persists among children. The study of Hess (1967), involving the socialization of children into the political system of the United States revealed that children with high level of education are more active, more likely to discuss political matters, and more interested in current events.

As study conducted by Agpalo (1972) in Occidental Mindoro showed that the educational attainment of the people in 1960 was either extreme low for majority of the people six year old and over it was nil for more that one-eight of the people. Those who have gone to first year and second year college constitute only 1.41 percent of the population. Agpalo inferred that based on the low education situation of the people in Occidental Mindoro, the main bulk of the people is politically uniformed, paronchial, and traditional in outlook. The study also showed that as a consequence of the very low income in the people, 14,023 out of the 14,782 households did not own any radio which, is a good source of national and international news. In contrast, all members of the top political elite had their radio and TV and were more aware of current events. The study disclosed that majority of the people in Occidental Mindoro were farmers, fishermen, unskilled workers, and the like, thus they have low salaries or incomes.

Jurado (1976) conducted a pilot survey in Batangas, which aimed at determining the political mobility, political awareness, political participation, and political efficacy of the residents of the place. With regard to political awareness, the study conducted that the better-educated, high-income workers had higher political awareness about government programs. The study further revealed that higher educational attainment and higher income provide one with easier access to information sources, and thus, generating higher awareness of political matters.
Torres (1988) reported a study conducted in four towns of Manila designed to find out interpersonal behavior patterns. Torres disclosed that those households from the lower socio-economic status (SES) have less knowledge about government programs and activities and they expressed greater dependence on the opinions of others than those from the highest socio-economic status.
Poostchi (1986) after conducting a survey research in rural areas conluded that the rural folks are considerable resistant to change and are suspicious and show lack of faith on people from the outside community. As a result, government officials usually have a hard time presenting and initiating program in their communities.

In the Philippines, class-linked attitudes are prevalent. The attitudes developed in each class towards the government “are adopted to the social and economic conditions of the people (Hund, et. Al., 1987). The study of Cornista (1987) in the Southern Tagalog villages involving coconut sharecroppers or the “mag-aalaga” revealed that these people with low income and less education are more resistant to change and innovation than the owners. This hostile attitude by the lower class individuals is coupled with indifference to the government which seems remote and have little effect on them. In contrast, the upper class and middle class individuals hold positive attitude and interest about the government.

In the study conducted by Abramsam (1990) with regards to the influence of the variables such as: income, social class, geographical locations, age, gender, organizational membership, religion, educational attainment, and race to the political participation of the United States population last presidential election of 1988 has come up with result that “individual American voter is in the meddle ages, with high educational attainment, lives in urban areas and involved in a number of different associational group, has higher income, is more actively participated during election.

A study conducted by Halloway and George (1979), through their observation of the 1960 Presidential Election of the United States, showed that people of high socio-economic status as measured by income, education, and occupation tend to participate more than those at the low end of the scale.

Legislation is also found to be unresponsive in some areas, where the people’s needs have not been considered in the process of legislation. In some instances, the people are unaware of the SB’s that were studied, not all of the indicators of effectiveness were met, the emphasis varying from their locality.

Related Studies
Studies on local leadership that have direct bearing on the present study are also reviewed. Jocano’s (1960) study on “Leadership and Power Holders among the Sulod of Central Panay” revealed that leadership is important aspect of Sulod social organization. It provides group activities a shared direction in accomplishing community goals. Certain individuals are given the status of leaders on the bases of a number of reasons: economic, social, religious, and political. In any case, leadership is dependent upon: 1. The leader’s ability to influence decision; 2. His knowledge of traditional lore; 3. His awareness of the needs, problems and attitudes of the followers; 4. His assessment of the situation within which leadership is to be exercised; 5. His sense of fair play; and 6. His grasp of proper timing for nay decisive action.

These findings clearly illustrate that a leader must possess desirable traits which reflect both traditional and modern norms of his respective community.

In the local studies conducted by Cui (1985) in one of the barangays of Ozamis City during the 1882 barangay election was focused on the political participation of the people. The research revealed that the respondent’s level of socio-economic attributes affect their decisions as well as their basis of voting preferences. In the same study, Cui (1985) revealed that the differences ;in terms of electoral participation are significantly related to the socio-economic status of the electorate. She also confirmed the findings of other researchers’ claim that “people with high socio-economic status are more motivated to take part in politics, this was so because they have the strong feelings and attitudes of political effectiveness, political efficacy and social responsibility”.

Another study conducted in the Philippines by Lumbo (1985) entitled “Participation of Teachers in Educational Decision-Making to School Development Projects” proves that participation among teachers varies in relation to their socio-economic status. Respondent’s reluctance to participate was partially explained by their occupation, income, educational attainment, and some other related factors.

Another interesting local study was conducted by Arubion (1985) entitled “A Study on Some Factors that Influence Voting during the April 7, 1978 Election to the Interim Batasang Pambansa in Balara Housing” proved that socio-economic status is one of the significant consideration that affect or influence the Filipino’s decision to participate in the electoral process. Among the socio-economic profiles tested were sex, age, income, occupation, and educational attainment.

Mackenzie (1986) also arrived at the same finding that electorate who have higher socio-economic status tend to have greater likelihood of active political participation. He emphasized that individuals with higher socio-economic conditions actively participate in political activity compared to Americans in the lower level of the society.

Another survey conducted by Huntington and Nelson (1976) in the developing countries indicated that highly educated people were more interested in politics, discussed politics frequently, and made more efforts to influence decision by local or national government authorities. In addition, Huntington and Nelson indicated that highly educated people are more likely to feel that it is the duty of citizen to participate in politics, and people who have this sense of duty do, in fact, participate more.

Another study conducted by Grosshoits (1964), entitled “Politics in the Philippines” stated that income, educational attainment, occupation, and religion remain to be important determinants for Filipino people to participate in political activities. The study of Wurfel (1988) demonstrates the role of religion and its growing influence on election outcomes. He emphasized the significant influence of religion. Accordingly, Filipino churches are prone to social and even political activities. The extent of its influence on private and government institutions are likely to impel the citizens to involve in almost every political issue.

Macasantos (1979) in his study, “City Planning and Politics: A Case Study of Cagayan de Oro City” reached the conclusion that the ability to provide consistent and full support for the planning enterprise stems in part from a combination of factors and conditions in the political setting which make it extremely difficult to establish and maintain a stable political leadership.

Macasantos (1979) further said, that “a more obvious structural constraint to effective and stable mayoralty leadership is the fact that the chief executive of the city actually has little significant control over the local administrative machinery. Hence, unless a mayor has or develop enough political clout through close connection with, and strong support of the national leadership, it is extremely difficult for the mayor to elicit or compel the support and cooperation of the city department heads and other officials who owe their appointments to national officials on whom they depend for their career or professional growth.

The study of Panda (1993) entitled “Ulama Political Leadership in Marawi City: An Alternative to Traditional Politics,” is a significant material for this study. The study assessed the role of the Maranao Ulama as local leaders. It intends to analyze whether the Ulama have become an alternative to traditional politics and wheterh they have demonstrated leadership, and attributed and institued reforms that make they different from traditional politicians.

Among the findings of Panda (1993) are: the Maranao Ulama articulated an ideology and demonstrated transformational leadership styles and strategies of the traditional politicians; and the Maranao Ulama political leadership initiated socio-economic and political changes in Marawi City. Given the chance to runt eh entire province as the executive officials, they can pursue more reforms for the City of Marawi.

Based on his findings, Panda (1993) affirmed that the Ulama as leaders have attempted to frame and define the reality of the constituents in Marawi City. Their leadership has initiated reforms to realize the socio-economic and political development of the City of Marawi and its people. They have the support of the public to carry out their goals and vision to work within the principles of Islam so that un-Islamic political practices and values will continue to be eliminated.

Studies on Peace and Development
The researcher also found some relevant studies and articles dealing on peace and development. Foremost of these is the commentaries of leaders about the peace process in Mindanao, specifically on the GRP-MNLF Peace Agreement. Some of these are reviewed here.

One of the hallmark documents on Mindanao peace process is the GRP-MNLF Peace Agreement signed on September 2, 1996 in Jolo, Sulu. Many considered this Agreement as both historic and workable. In a sense, through this Agreement, the MNLF had discarded its secession agenda and instead adopted a political alternative to bring development to the Bangsa Moro homeland. It also signaled the end of the MNLF quest for self rule by the barrel of the gun and set the pace toward unity and progress for all Mindanaons and the Filipino antion (Mindanao Agenda). This area is now called Special Zone of Peace and Development (SZOPAD), comprising 14 provinces and 9 cities in Mindanao (Sarip, 1996).

According to Prof. Nur Misuari, the Regional Governor of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) and Chairman of the Southern Philippines Council for Peace and Development (SPCPD), the road to peace and development is not easy. Although he expressed some pessimism on the Peace Agreement, he however believes that the future still is bright and that the Agreement cannot be judged on its freshman year. He said further that he is launching a new phase of our new people’s struggle in seeking complete fulfillment of their noble cause for a just, comprehensive and lasting peace in the Bangsa Moro homeland. He added that we have the capacity and capability to move forward and radically transform our socio-economic and political condition, with the end in view of giving our people a life of peace and prosperity. Almighty God has blessed our region with rich bounties and resources that are not easily available in certain regions of the world. We have fertile and arable soil, our vast forest is full of minerals and our seas are the richest fishing ground in this part of the world (Misuari, ARMM, 1996).

As the architect of GRP-MNLF Peace Agreement, Pres. Fidel V. Ramos considered the peace initiatives with the MNLF as a beginning of an era of peace and development in Mindanao as well as a sign of strengthening the unity of our people, as one nation, one people and one vision. During the turn-over ceremonies of the ARMM leadership, form outgoing Gov. Lindy Pangandaman to Governor-elect Nur Misuari, Pres. Ramos said that the assumption of Gov. Misuari to the leadership of ARMM has deep meaning for our country’s march toward peace and development. The President cited the following reasons (Ramos, The New ARMM, 1996): Firstly, the turn-over symbolizes the unification of our people as truly national community. All Filipinos in the South and all over our Republic can now say with conviction that they are brothers and sisters of one family-regardless of ethnic origin, religious belief and party affiliation. The opposition of some quarters to certain provisions of the final peace agreement remains a discordant note to our harmony – so I appeal to them once more to give peace a chance and join the mainstream of development.

Secondly, it sustains the uniquely Philippine kind of democracy we restored through our “people power” revolution ten years ago – one that is participatory, representative and grass-roots based.

Thirdly, it ushers in more equitable development in our Southern regions. The creation of the Special Zone of Peace and Development (SZOPAD) in Mindanao – as a result of the Peace Agreement – gives us the precious opportunity and the breathing spell to work together without serious interruption or disturbance towards community development and nation-building, Ramos said.

ON the other hand, the Honorable Ali Alatas, the Indonesian Foreign Minister who was one of the signatories of the GRP-MNLF Peace Agreement, said that the Agreement fulfills the letter and spirit of Tripoli Agreement of 1976 and provides for wide-ranging autonomy within the framework of the Philippine sovereignty and territorial integrity. It embodies a comprehensive and just solution to the conflict situation in the Southern Philippines. However, the peace agreement, or any other agreement for that matter, does not implement itself. It assumes concrete reality only on the accretion of activities completed, the solid implementary achievements, contributions, cooperation and often inevitable sacrifices by all those who are supposed to make it work. There will be obstacles and challenges that will stand in the way of implementation… and some of these will be no less formidable than those that had to be overcome in order to achieve the Agreement. But the Filipino nation, united and at peace within itself will be a tremendous force for stability and progress in Southeast Asia. The peace in the Philippines will contribute tremendously to the peace stability of the entire Southeast Asia region. (Alatas, A Historic Moment for Filipino Nation, 1996).

In another view, Dr. Hamid Algabid, the Secretary-General of the Organization of Islamic Conference, said that while the external support and encouragement of the OIC and its members states were crucial importance for sustaining the peace process all these years, in ultimate analysis, it is the will of the people of the Philippines and the sprit of compromise and flexibility demonstrated both by the MNLF and the government negotiators that in fact produced a settlement of this vexed problem through negotiations. I am sure, they will be remembered by posterity for their personal contributions in achieving an honorable settlement of the problem of Philippines and thus ushering in a ear of peace, progress and development in Southern Philippines.

In the same vein, Kadil (1999) wrote that peace and development which is manifested with self-sufficiency can be obtained not necessarily with the guns but with appropriate legislation. He said that the government body concerned with legislation (e.g. the Philippine Congress) should explore every possible measure based on a rationale and sound principles and use heir legislative influence in effecting the full implementation of the Tripoli Agreement of 1976, that will be acceptable to all forces and elements in the Islamic movement. The constitutional measure of referendum based on the “politics of number” will not solve the problem because that is not the formula, lest let the gun solve it. The use of force is what the government bent on doing, according to the Muslims. Let the Congress act on it with full optimism in favor of the full implementation of the Tripoli Agreement that is devoid of selfishness, cheat and insincerity. With the input for a federal or autonomous system of Islamic self-rule that is acceptable to all forces and elements (also the government), there will be hope for better future where there is relative peace and order, stability and sufficiency before the “Philippines 200” shall have expired.
In addition, in the writings of Ledesma (1998), it was opined that the culture of peace should be taught in schools. He said that if governments can require schools to train their students for war through military service, it is also proper that schools and university train students for peace. This training should focus on building and internalization a culture of peace.

Ledesma (1998) further said that there are sources of a culture of peace. The first source is religious traditions, whether Christians, Muslims, etc. Authentic religious attitude and peace are not far behind. The second source of a culture of peace is the “humanity that wants and needs peace.” The entire humanity has enough experience with the horrors of wars and hostilities that it can only wish these to end. The third source of a culture of peace is the People’s Power in EDSA which exemplifies to the whole world the superiority of active non-violence based on people power over the armed might of a dictatorial regime.

Lastly, Madale (1999) said that our peace education curriculum concepts are basically copied form the West: Gandhi’s nonviolence, Gene Sharp’s game theory, global education, human rights, nuclear disarmaments, world order studies, and many others which do not suit our own peculiar needs. In the case of the resolution of the conflict in the south, we have complicated the issue by introducing western terms like “peace process,” “zone of peace and development,” dialogue, etc.

Madale (1999) further said that the concept of war and that of an “enemy” begins form the mind. This is institutionalized by building real and imaginary structures to support this philosophy of war. In like manner, peace should also begin from the mind. Correspondingly, the structures (real or imaginary) should be established to pursue their idea of Peace Education.

The articles and studies reviewed are relevant to the present study. They all help in the final formulation of the problem and in conceptualizing the entire research framework. From the review, it is well-established that the present study has no duplicate and thus pioneering one in Malabang, Lanao del Sur. This is the reason why few studies were related with this research.

Chapter III

This chapter deals with the method of research, the nature of the sample, the research instrument, data-gathering procedure and analysis, and the statistical procedure and treatment of the data.

Research Design
This is a descriptive study using content analysis, in-depth interview of key informants and direct observation to establish some tendencies in the process of legislation and implementation of local policies in the Municipality of Malabang, Lanao del Sur. This is suited to the kind of information needed and the corresponding analyses in meeting the objectives set in the study. In short, this study is a pioneering work insofar as determining the process of legislation and implantation of local policies concerning peace and development in Malabnag, Lanao del Sur.

Locale of the Study
This study was conducted in the Municipality of Malabang, Lanao del Sur. The town of Malabang, which is an integral part of the province of Lanao del Sur, is located on the Southernmost rim of the province along the famous Illana Bay, between two natural barriers: The verdant plateau of Unayan and the bluish sea of Moro Gulf. Its location makes it a cross-road of the provinces of Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, Zamboanga del Sur and the Empire provinces of Cotabato. Being a cross-road, the town becomes an important trade and commercial center in Southern Philippines. Its nearness to the sea, the Illana Bay, is a great factor that contributes to the economic welfare of the people. Fishing and farming are its important industries. Its shortest navigable river in the world which comes from the million crystal clear spring from the western and southern facades of the Spanish Fort Corcuera, now known as the Fort Jose Abad Santos. It coils around the town to one of the richest fishing grounds in the Philippines, the Illana Bay. It commands as one of the most important in the South (History of Malabang, sourvernir program, First Araw ng Malabang, 1981).

The total population of Malabang is 28, 840 as of 1995 (NSO) or 5.0 percent of the total population of the province of Lanao del Sur. This is estimated to grow dramatically within the next few years now that the concreting of the Marawin to Cotabato national highway, known as the Narciso Ramos Highway, was completed.

Maranao tribe is the majority population of Malabang with significant numbers of Christians living together with Maranaos in harmonious relationship. Thus, Maranao language is widely spoken dialect by both the Muslims and Non-Muslims. Other dialects spoken by the people are Cebuano, Maguindanao and Tausongs.

Aside form her being a historical place, the choice of this place as the locale of the research study has been influenced by the following reasons: the Municipality is classified as fifth (5th) class based on Executive Order Number 249 signed on the 25th day of July 1987 in Manila by Joker P. Arroyo, the then Executive Secretary of Pres. Corazon C. Aquino; the Sangguniang Bayan of the municipality is relatively well-educated implying a potentially effective SB; the populace is compost of Maranaos and Cebuanos (Christians) signifying a relatively high level of policalization; and the research is very familiar with the political figures of the place and this could come handy in selecting and interviewing key informants.

Data Gathering Technique
To ascertain the opinion of the respondents, questionnaire/interview guide was used for data gathering. To make the results more valid and reliable, the researcher supplemented the aforesaid tool with observation and in-depth interviews with key informants. The key informants were the SB members who had sponsored or co-sponsored a municipal resolution or a municipal ordinance dealing on environmental development, peace and development. The emphasis on environmental development was made since there were many policies approved by the Municipal Council of Malabang dealing directly or indirectly on the environment.

The data gathering was only done by the researcher after the municipal mayor’s approval. Initially, the researcher visited the offices of the mayor and the vice mayor as well as the Sangguiang Bayan Secretary. Their approval was also sought and readily consented.

The researcher used the Sangguniang Bayan members, who served form 1994 to 1998 as the key informants. These key informants were interviewed several times by the researcher to establish the process of formulation and problems met in the implementation of these policies.

The familiarity of the researcher on the standard operating procedures of the Sangguniang Members of Malabang and considering that he is a native of the place, the interviews were successful and efficient.

Selection of Respondents
According to Ballou (1970), there are three sources of data. They are: 1) policies, 2) original documents and records, and 3) key informants. To ensure the reliability of the respondent’s opinion, it is decided that copies of the policies/ordinances relevant to peace and development in Malabang which were approved by the Sannguiang Bayan in Malabang, Lanao del Sur were secured first to serve as the main documents. Since this study as a qualitative study, opinions and perceptions of the interviewees were the main data to supports the research problems. Specifically, key informants of this study are those Sangguniang Bayan members who had sponsored policies related to environmental development and peace and order. Considering that they were only few, sampling was not resorted to but all of them were considered respondents.

Research Instrument
The major instrument used in collecting data was the questionnaire/interview guide. It was designed to gather personal data of the respondents to include his or her sex, civil status, educational attainment, religious affiliation, position in SB, and membership in organization. It also asked information on the policy formulation process and problems encountered by the respondents in the implementation of enacted ordinances and approved resolutions.

The first draft of the questionnaire was submitted to the adviser for correction, screening, and assessment. The final drafts were distributed to the prospective respondents. For better understanding, this was translated verbally into the Maranao dialect.

Observation. In addition to data collected through the Interview Guide, the researcher conducted an observation relevant to the problems of the study. The knowledge obtained through observation and interview was used in confirming and supporting the result of the analysis and in making relevant interpretation of the data and the corresponding findings.

Content Analysis. This was utilized in classifying the 52 ordinances and resolutions approved by the SB form 1994 to 1998. By this method, the 52 SB issuances during the period under review were read, their content analyzed, and then classified/categorized into peace and environment; economic enterprises; social, cultural, historical; and honors, awards, citations, etc.

The category peace and environment include those resolutions and ordinances that deal with the maintenance or peace and order in the municipality as well as those for the protection of the surrounding of the locality specifically the rivers, water supply, and seashores. It also includes issuance on health and sanitation and transportation and traffic. The category on economic enterprises has something to do with the economic activities of the place like retailing, licensing, taxation, transportation business and infrastructures supporting these activities. The social, cultural and historical policies include those on the promotion of social-cultural activities like sports, population study, and committee organization and membership. Lastly, honors, awards, and citations category include those policies that give due recognition, appreciation and awards to local officials and individuals or community organizations that contributed to the well-being of the municipality.

Analysis of Data
For the valid interpretation of the data gathered, the following statistical methods were used:
1. Frequency. This was used for data involving the personal profile of respondents such as sex, age, civil status, religion, educational attainment, type of school, position as a basis of indicating the number of respondents answering a category.
2. Percentage. This was used to establish the relationship of a frequency to the total number of cases. The formula is:

P (%) = f/n x 100


P (%) = Percentage
F = Frequency
N = Total Number of Cases